How does impressionism come into being?
The production of photography in the 19th century was a serious challenge to the art of painting, pushing artists to find a new way out. The first photo generated in 1820s and by 1860s, photography has underwent a great development. Before this, painting undertook the important task to record image. With the popularization of photography, painting art had lost its former dominance. At that time, some artists even thought of no prospects for the future development of painting. This sense of crisis prompted artists to give up classical painting techniques of photos and to find new ways in painting color.
At that time, the capitalist countries were expanding to the East. Oriental art and culture began to be shown in western people's eyes. Japanese printmaking, Chinese silk and other Oriental art with their unique decoration, plane, perspective method and beautiful colors formed a fascinating new art world, which was also a promotion and enlightenment for western artists to get rid of the tradition to pursue the new. Impressionism gave birth under such historical conditions.
In the middle of the 19th century, although realism art which confronted the traditional art appeared, official school forces were still very strong. Under the control of official schools, more than 4000 paintings failed to be selected in salon exhibition in 1863, which aroused widespread social discontent. In order to stabilize the situation, Napoleon III personally dealt with this matter and then held a Salon des Refuses. In this exhibition, Manet's Luncheon on the Grass caused the dispute, becoming a painting causing a great sensation. Although attacked by some people, it was still admired by some young painters and literature writers.
Since then, a number of innovative young artists who were unwilling to be bound by traditional art often gathered in Gailbowl cafe located in Batiyuer Avenue, Paris, talked about art and literature, explored new ideas and carried out heated discussions. These people were led by four students of classical painter Gleyre's studio-Monet, Renoir, Sisley, and Bachy and then made friends with Pissarro, Cezanne and the female painter Morisot. Finally, Manet and Degas joined them. In addition, literature write Zora was also included. Because Manet was much older among those people and had certain artistic achievements, so he was respected as the spiritual leader by these painters.
In addition to the exploration of art, these artists often went to outdoors for painting to pursue new expression techniques of describing color changes. They chose Courbet's realistic portrayal road and depicted the natural scenery and the reality of life that they saw. These artists were also influenced by the Barbizon and closely contacted with them. They also acquired their courage to get out of the studio and directly face the nature, and got lots of advice different from academic schools. Young Impressionists were also inspired and encouraged by Constant Boer and Turner's works. Their vigorous scene atmosphere and rich colors derived from the British painters, especially Boudin and JongKind's direct influence on impressionism. Lï¼ŽEï¼ŽBoudin (1824-1898) was Monet's enlightener and insisted on outdoor sketching, whose works were full of vibrating light and atmosphere. Especially his depiction of the colors of sky was more vivid. Jï¼ŽBï¼ŽJongKind (1819-1891) was a painter from Holland, who was commonly using watercolors for outdoors paintings and then processed them into oil paintings. His paintings kept the vitality of sketches with good color feeling. He painted with Boudin and Monet. It can be said that Boudin and JongKind are direct enlightener of impressionist.
After the Franco-Prussian War in 1870s, Impressionist painters returned to meet in Gailbowl cafe located in Batiyuer Avenue. So they might be called "Batiyuer Group". In fact, they were just the young artists with close relationship who painted together and discussed art. They had no unified thought, no official organization and programs. 10-year exploration from 60s to 70s finally formed a new mature style. In 1874, this group of artists jointly held the first joint exhibition which was called "Nameless Painters, Sculptors and Artists Association Exhibition" consisting of 29 painters and more than 160 works, arousing great repercussions in society.
A seascape painting Sunrise Impression of Monet was satirized by the reporter of Louis Lelovan of Noisy who later entitled it Impressionist Exhibition in his article. He took advantage of classical painters to slam these works. He said Sunrise Impression vaguely and miserably being presented in front of people to probe the painter's ignorance and of beauty and the truth. And the wallpapers were more complete and these beautiful colors and splashed mud became the fashionable things. After visiting the exhibition, when talking about his feelings, he said these paintings were like the pigments in pistol hit on the canvas and signed a name to be completed. Some people ridiculously said these paintings were scraped off by the palette of colors.
This exhibition was open before the official salon exhibition, attracting many visitors. The new style of these newly displayed works made people feel fresh, but was difficult to be accepted. Sarcasm was far more than praise. After the exhibition, the irony "impressionism" had been accepted by this group of painters, and had also been followed by later people. In this way, the new school universally acknowledged -impressionism was born.
From 1874 to 1886, the Impressionists held a total of 8 exhibitions where exhibitors were not completely confined to the school members and their own members were not wholly included. Boudin had only participated in the first exhibition and American female painter Cassatt involved in this exhibition for the third time. While Manet had been expected to get official recognition and was busy attending the official salon and never participated in Impressionist exhibition. Only Pissarro took part in every exhibition.
After the last joint exhibition in 1886, impressionism did not hold group exhibition because of the differences in art, less and less common opinions and more prominent personal characteristics. Impressionism movement drew to a close. Since then, impressionism was replaced by new impressionism and post-impressionism.